Drugs and drug policy in the islamic republic of Iran

Drugs and drug policy in the islamic republic of Iran In 2018 a judicial order issued by the Islamic Republic of Iran chief justice, Sadeq Larijani, amended the country’s strict drug trafficking laws, raising the threshold that triggers the death penalty in drug possession cases. The new order set the stage for several thousand prisoners …

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Religious interpretation of Cannabis in Iran

Legislative reforms and policy developments are influenced by multiple institutional and knowledge agents. Drugs policy, too, operates through various lines of enquiries. Religion, understood as a body of traditions, ethics and dispositions, is one important aspect. This of course is relevant in the context of the Islamic Republic, where religion stands at the foundation of …

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From Cannabis prohibition to cannabis regulation in Iran

From cannabis prohibition to cannabis regulation in Iran It is with the establishment of the modern state (1920s) and, especially, with the foundation of the Islamic Republic in 1979 that prohibition of drugs, including  cannabis, becomes more stringent. In the first part of the 20th century, cannabis was a primary concern to Iranian policymakers (and …

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Historical background

Hum, homa, soum, sama, giyah-e javidan (‘the herb of the immortal’), giyahe moqaddas (‘sacred herb’), khadar (‘green’), kimiyah (‘alchemy’), qanaf (‘hemp’), zomord-e giyah-e (emerald herb) are among the many expressions given to cannabis in the Iranian plateau. More popular names are hashish, the Arabic word for “grass”, bang, an Avestan term indicating whole cannabis residue, …

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Cannabis status in Contemporary Iran

The question of cannabis through the legal interpretation of religious authorities in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Introduction: Middle Eastern states and the Islamic world are known for adopting strict codes of prohibitions. These apply to sexual norms, such as premarital sex, social practices such as gambling and consumption behaviour as in the case of …

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Islam and Cannabis: Legalisation and religious debate in Iran

Iran is currently discussing cannabis and opium regulations, which could bring a legalisation of drug consumption through a state supervised system. The take on cannabis as seen and interpreted  by the religious authorities in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The choice of Iran is justified for several reasons: firstly, Iran has a long history of …

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Cannabis in Iran

Cannabis in Iran: Situated between Afghanistan’s extensive poppy fields and eager Western markets, Iran has an extensive history of domestic opium, alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use dating back centuries. In recent decades, heroin has become more popular. Most recently, the use of methamphetamine has increased and is reportedly in demand across the social spectrum, from …

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Strain Hunting in Lebanon 2019

The trip to Lebanon was fantastic. Lebanon is a great country and up to few years ago it was called the Switzerland of the Middle East where lots of rich people would have their bank accounts… The food is of high standards, great quality, a perfect mix of Mediterranean and Middle Eastern cuisine. It is …

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Northern Africa: Egypt and Morocco

Northern Africa: Egypt and Morocco A good example of cultural imperialism towards cannabis culture is provided by Napoleon, who during the Egyptian campaign published a proclamation in which he ordered that: 1) The use of the drink that some Muslims prepare with hemp, and the smoking of hemp flowers are prohibited throughout Egypt. Those who …

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BLACK AFRICA

The Zulu chiefs put a handful of hemp into the ground, rest a piece of dry and burning dung on it, cover it all with earth, make two holes with their fingers on the sides, and place themselves on the ground one after the other make a couple of inhalations, holding smoke in the lungs; …

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